Neutron and Proton

Next is the neutron and proton, shown in Figure  3, where the up and down quarks known to be present in neutrons and protons are expanded into their corresponding Rishon particles:

Image rishon_neutron_proton figureProton and Neutron Rishon Model structure

The proton has, as expected, a +1T (electrical) charge and the neutron has 0 electrical charge. However: note that whilst the proton has a zero V charge, the neutron has a negative (-1) V charge. From this we quite reasonably surmise that the neutrino has a positive V charge, on the grounds that the electron has the opposite T charge from a proton.

We lay out the Proton and Neutron in this shape as a way to express spin characteristics. It is believed that this is actually how the larger (composite) particles generate spin. Under investigation for additional possible explanations however are further toroidal knots (in this case the 10,3 pattern).

Observe in the proton how the end $ \overline{V}$ particles of the down quark line up with the central V particles of the up quarks at either end. In this way the two up quarks may safely themselves spin, and at the same time the whole "I-shaped" assembly may rotate, thus providing from an external perspective the observed spin characteristics noted of protons in current particle physics models. This arrangement also places a natural explanation for a limit on certain combinations of Rishons.

lkcl 2017-01-03