------------------------------------ STATUS: DRAFT LAST EDITED: 28jan2014 Copyright (C) 2014 Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton. All Rights Reserved (ask permission please: don't go copying or making random edits, basically) Contact: lkcl@lkcl.net ------------------------------------


Author's note 28jan2014: further analysis of the top quark's mass indicates some flaws in some of the reasoning and deduction below, which is still under investigation, and has yet to be written up. the most likely hypothesis due to its huge mass is that the top is a 27-rishon behemoth, in the same family as the two higgs bosons. the line of enquiry under investigation follows the pattern of particles created by the electron-positron collision experiments being followed similarly where proton-anti-proton collisions are carried out, and the observation that there is a potential candidate for "Bottom" which has a neutrino in the exact same place where the proton has an up quark. this leaves an unfilled hole in the 9-particle groups: a quark which can either not exist for reasons unknown, or which is still to be identified as of yet, or it is one which is giving the appearance of statistical anomalies in the analysis of existing data, over the past few decades. In short, the Extended Rishon Model tells us that there is still an enormous amount of work to do. The Rishon Model has not really been explored properly, in terms of representation of elementary particles and their interactions through standard decay patterns. When this is done however a flaw is found in the original Rishon Model: the charge of the neutrino requires inversion. Once this inversion is carried out it is possible to create a consistent map of all known particles, including gluons, W, Z and Higgs Bosons (note: two variants of Higgs are predicted). Decay patterns including oscillation of Strange B Mesons can be easily and consistently explained in terms of the altered Rishon Model. From analysing a number of standard decay patterns a new gluon-like Rishon notation has been created (VT0 and VT*) which, whilst if not actually present as particles, at least by way of being thought more of as "events" represent the phase changes that result in Rishon particles transforming into others whilst preserving phase and energy (the phase change matrix is outlined in this paper). Instances where the phase transforms do not match up correlate precisely with known observations where "decay energy" or gamma radiation is emitted. Also proposed in this paper is the hypothesis that the mass of quarks (and particles) is not entirely as they appear. Whilst the observed mass/energy values are incontrovertibly correct, the hypothesis under investigation is that some of the energy from electrical charge believed to be used to influence the particle's momentum is in fact being diverted into its angular momentum (in a similar way to pulling a toy gyroscope's string if the gyroscope were placed on a frictionless surface, and then concluding that the gyroscope were heavier because it moved less). The hypothesis is based on the quite reasonable assumption that the energy levels of T and V particles and the interactions between them are identical, yet because the V particles are effectively at "right-angle" dimensions to those of V particles (in the same way that real and imaginary numbers are at right-angles), it "appears" to take far more energy to move compound particles containing V Rishons than it really should. By taking either the cube root or half-cube (3/2) root of the mass ratios of closely-related particles we come out with some ratios that show clear patterns, and establish a correlation between the mass ratios and the ratio of T and V particles. These patterns in the mass ratios as well as the above hypothesis help determine the Alternate Rishon Model representation of the larger quarks - Strange, Charm, Top and Bottom. Further analysis shows how to derive the muon and the tau. From the derivation of the tau the existence of two previously unknown quarks (ultra-up and ultra-down) are inferred. From there the makeup of the W, Z and Higgs Boson are derived, and an additional particle (Higgs-0) is quite reasonably predicted to exist (and noted to already have been experimentally observed at 126.0 GeV). It is distinguished from the original Higgs (renamed to Higgs+) which is believed to have been experimentally observed at 125.3 GeV. Also a very simple potential explanation for the stable attraction-repulsion paradox of the Nuclear Force is given, which is only possible because the Extended Rishon Model is the only model in particle physics that contains a simple and symmetrical framework for the internal layout of quarks.

lkcl 2016-12-29