LAST EDITED: 28jan2014
Copyright (C) 2014 Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton. All Rights Reserved
(ask permission please: don't go copying or making random edits, basically)
Author's note 28jan2014: further analysis of the top quark's mass
indicates some flaws in some of the reasoning and deduction below, which is
still under investigation, and has yet to be written up. the most likely
hypothesis due to its huge mass is that the top is a 27-rishon behemoth, in
the same family as the two higgs bosons. the line of enquiry under
investigation follows the pattern of particles created by the electron-positron
collision experiments being followed similarly where proton-anti-proton
collisions are carried out, and the observation that there is a potential
candidate for "Bottom" which has a neutrino in the exact same place where the
proton has an up quark. this leaves an unfilled hole in the 9-particle groups:
a quark which can either not exist for reasons unknown, or which is still
to be identified as of yet, or it is one which is giving the appearance of
statistical anomalies in the analysis of existing data, over the past few
decades. In short, the Extended Rishon Model tells us that there is still an
enormous amount of work to do.
The Rishon Model has not really been explored properly, in terms of
representation of elementary particles and their interactions through
standard decay patterns. When this is done however a flaw is found
in the original Rishon Model: the charge of the neutrino requires
inversion. Once this inversion is carried out it is possible to
create a consistent map of all known particles, including
gluons, W, Z and Higgs Bosons (note: two variants of Higgs are predicted).
Decay patterns including oscillation of Strange B Mesons can be
easily and consistently explained in terms of the altered Rishon Model.
From analysing a number of standard decay patterns a new gluon-like Rishon
notation has been created (VT0 and VT*) which, whilst if not actually
present as particles, at least by way of being thought more of as "events"
represent the phase changes that result in Rishon particles transforming
into others whilst preserving phase and energy (the phase change matrix
is outlined in this paper). Instances where the phase transforms do not
match up correlate precisely with known observations where "decay energy"
or gamma radiation is emitted.
Also proposed in this paper is the hypothesis that the mass of quarks
(and particles) is not entirely as they appear. Whilst the observed
mass/energy values are incontrovertibly correct, the hypothesis under
investigation is that some of the energy from electrical charge believed
to be used to influence the particle's momentum is in fact being diverted
into its angular momentum (in a similar way to pulling a toy
gyroscope's string if the gyroscope were placed on a frictionless surface,
and then concluding that the gyroscope were heavier because it moved less).
The hypothesis is based on the quite reasonable assumption that the
energy levels of T and V particles and the interactions between them are
identical, yet because the V particles are effectively at "right-angle"
dimensions to those of V particles (in the same way that real and imaginary
numbers are at right-angles), it "appears" to take far more energy
to move compound particles containing V Rishons than it really should.
By taking either the cube root or half-cube (3/2) root of the mass
ratios of closely-related particles we come out with some ratios that
show clear patterns, and establish a correlation between the mass ratios
and the ratio of T and V particles.
These patterns in the mass ratios as well as the above hypothesis help
determine the Alternate Rishon Model representation of the larger quarks
- Strange, Charm, Top and Bottom. Further analysis shows how to derive
the muon and the tau. From the derivation of the tau the existence of
two previously unknown quarks (ultra-up and ultra-down) are inferred.
From there the makeup of the W, Z and Higgs Boson are derived, and an
additional particle (Higgs-0) is quite reasonably predicted to exist
(and noted to already have been experimentally observed at 126.0 GeV).
It is distinguished from the original Higgs (renamed to Higgs+) which
is believed to have been experimentally observed at 125.3 GeV.
Also a very simple potential explanation for the stable attraction-repulsion
paradox of the Nuclear Force is given, which is only possible because the
Extended Rishon Model is the only model in particle physics that contains a
simple and symmetrical framework for the internal layout of quarks.